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Dynamics of US and China Relationship

Dynamics of US and China Relationship

Dynamics of US and China Relationship

The relationship between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the United States of America has indeed been complex and at times strained since the establishment of the PRC in 1949 and the retreat of the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to Taiwan. This complex relationship has evolved over the years and has been influenced by various historical events and geopolitical shifts.  Here are the key points of the dynamics of US and China relationship.

Background of the Dynamics of US and China Relationship:

  1. Early Engagement: The United States first engaged with China through trade, and there were hopes of a significant American presence in the Chinese market. The 1845 Treaty of Wangxia marked one of the first major events in U.S.-China relations.
  2. Boxer Rebellion: In 1900, the U.S. joined other imperial powers in sending troops to suppress the Boxer Rebellion in China. The Open Door Policy aimed to prevent the division of China into spheres of influence among foreign powers.
  3. Support for China in WWII: During World War II, the United States supported China, which was then led by the ROC, against Japanese aggression.
  4. Chinese Civil War: After World War II, the U.S. attempted to mediate a settlement between the Nationalists (ROC) and Communists (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War, but the Communists eventually emerged victorious, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.
  5. Recognition of the PRC: For many years, the United States did not recognize the PRC as the legitimate government of China and continued to support the ROC on Taiwan. However, in 1972, President Richard Nixon’s visit to China marked a significant turning point, leading to the formal recognition of the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China in 1979.
  6. Relations with Taiwan: The U.S. continued to provide military support to Taiwan under the framework of the Taiwan Relations Act, which remains a contentious issue in U.S.-China relations.
  7. Recent Tensions: U.S.-China relations have experienced ups and downs in recent years. The Obama administration signed numerous agreements with China, especially on climate change, but relations deteriorated with the Xi administration. The Trump administration labelled China a “strategic competitor” and engaged in a trade war, while also confronting China on issues like the South China Sea, human rights abuses in Xinjiang, and espionage.
  8. Joe Biden’s Presidency: Tensions between the U.S. and China continued into the Biden administration. While there has been a focus on competition, Biden has emphasized the need for “competition, not conflict.”
Dynamics of US and China Relationship

Dynamics of US and China Relationship

Recent Dynamics of US and China Relationship:

The three top US officials visiting Beijing in recent weeks had a challenging agenda: stabilize the world’s most important and contentious bilateral relationship.

Relations between the United States and China had already reached a historic low last year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine, and tensions over trade, technology, and human rights, when then-Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi last August travelled to Taiwan.

Following the November summit in Bali between Chinese leader Xi Jinping and US President Joe Biden, Chinese surveillance balloons that had been shot down over the US earlier this year fell into disrepair, sending relations on another path. Moved forward.

Sequential visits to Beijing since last month, including by US Secretary of State Antony Blinken, Treasury chief Janet Yellen and climate envoy John Kerry, have been widely seen as meetings with Chinese leaders, such as Xi, Premier Li Keqiang and top envoy Wang Yi. have been welcomed as a significant step forward from that declining level.

The success of global efforts to prevent global climate change may depend on the cooperation between these two powers – and their relationship impacts a range of issues from the size of global supply chains to the risk of conflict in the Indian Ocean.


The relationship between these two major powers is marked by competition and cooperation across various domains, including economic, political, and security issues. Both countries play critical roles in global affairs, and their interactions have significant implications for international stability and the global economy. The ongoing dynamics of US China relationship will continue to be a central aspect of global geopolitics in the coming years.

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